21 Jun

Eternal Treasure: Gold Extraction from Antiquity to Today

Eternal Treasure: Gold Extraction from Antiquity to Today

Where is all the gold

We can estimate that of all the gold extracted since Antiquity, the essential part is still present in the anthroposphere, that is to say all the objects created and used by man. Alone
a small part, difficult to assess but perhaps of the order of 5 to 10%, has “disappeared”, i.e.

  • is dissipated by wear and tear in the environment (a gold wedding ring worn for years ends up scratching a little, which means that a few gold atoms are torn off)
  • either dissipated by non-recycling or non-recovery in its electronic uses or industrial, or marginal losses in recycling processes
  • is dissipated due to the nature of its use (food gilding, uses organic for certain medical tests, etc.)
  • is lost (lost treasures, sunken galleons – even if from time to time part of this gold reappears (treasures exhumed, or brought up from underwater wrecks)
  • either left in the form of dental crowns in the mouths of buried deceased persons
  • be sent into interplanetary space (gold equips satellites, Mars probes, equipment abandoned on the Moon, etc.)

In 2018, it is estimated the gold stock above ground at around 190,400 tons, i.e. most of what has been historically extracted, distributed 47.4% in the form of jewelry, 16.8% in
form of reserves in central banks, 21.7% in the form of coins and ingots in private stocks, 12.2% in the form of objects or in various equipment, which would total 186,700 tons, the remainder (3,700 tons) being not inventoried .

The sources of information differ slightly (total extracted reported: 188,650 tons according to historical data and recent production, other estimates at 190,400 tons, to be increased by gold
lost. It is important to focus on orders of magnitude, not precise figures, which are impossible to verify.

At the end of June 2018, the official reserves of central banks were 33,763 tons of gold, or around 18% of the gold available above ground. The World Gold Council has official gold reserves by country. It will be noted that these reserves of 33,763 tons stored in bank vaults would cover 101 years of technical consumption of gold (industry, electronics, dentistry) at its 2017 level. This is a unique situation compared to all others metals used by man, for which stocks rarely exceed a few months of consumption. This is one of the reasons why gold is rarely considered as critical in recent metal criticality analyses.

Known gold land reserves and resources

The accumulation of identified and listed land reserves amounts to 51,000 tons of gold in 2017, the equivalent of 15 years of production at the rate of 2017, and the total resources (inferred + indicated + measured) at 169,000 tons of gold, the equivalent of 50 years of production at the rate of 2017. These identified land resources are also comparable, in order of magnitude, to all the gold already historically extracted.

Let us recall that, in the strict sense, reserves are the part of the resources whose economic exploitability has been demonstrated by a feasibility study. Let us also remember that these tonnages of resources and reserves are dynamic quantities which evolve, mining exploration continuing to discover and highlight new resources, and feasibility studies continuing to convert additional shares of reserve resources.

Gold investment options

Gold is currently in an uptrend bullish market. Investing in gold offers a variety of options, each with its own advantages.

Physical gold, such as coins, bars, and jewelry, is a tangible asset that can be stored and held. Gold ETFs (Exchange-Traded Funds) allow investors to buy shares representing gold without the need to store physical gold. You can invest in both physical gold and gold ETFs by placing part of your retirement funds in a gold IRA.

Gold mining stocks in particular provide an opportunity to invest in companies that produce gold, offering potential for high returns but also higher risk. Gold futures and options are more complex financial instruments for more experienced investors, allowing for speculation on gold price movements with the potential for high returns. Each of these options caters to different investment strategies, risk tolerance, and financial goals, making gold a versatile asset in any well-diversified portfolio.

02 Apr

Applying Recycling To Electronic Waste

Digital devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops are becoming increasingly problematic for the environment because, when they reach the end of one‘s useful lives, they generate nearly 50 million tonnes of technological waste each year, with a recycling rate of only about a quarter of that amount.

Improving it is critical to slowing climate changes & preventing environmental damage.

The Different Kinds Of Electronic Waste

How many different mobile phones have you owned during your life?

The solution to this issue will help you comprehend the environmental impact of e-waste, or electronic trash. Approximately every 15 months, according to MarketWatch, customers replaced their mobile phones in 2018.

Any gadget driven by electrical energy which has reached the end of its useful life is considered electronic trash by the Organization of Economic Co-operation & Development (OECD).

As a result, we’re not only talking about mobile phones. Examine some of the several types of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment that are now in use, as defined by a European Union directive, including:

• Refrigerators, freezers, and other types of cooling equipment
• Computers & telecommunications equipment.
• Consumer electronic devices, as well as solar-powered devices
• TVs, monitors, and screens are all types of displays.
• LED bulbs are a type of light bulb.
• Vending machines.

The World’s Problem With Technological Waste Can Be Summarised as: globally, 48.5 million tonnes of electronic waste were generated in 2018, according to a United Nations report.

This figure emphasises the growing necessity of better waste management, dumpster rental and recycling, that also reveals some concerning statistics: just 20% of this garbage is recycled, which is a disturbingly low statistic. If we continue in this manner, the United Nations forecasts that we would have generated 120 million tonnes of electronic waste by 2050.

The amount of e-waste created around the world, combined with poor recycling management, poses a threat to the environment. Cadmium, lead oxide, lead, antimony, nickel, and mercury are just a few of the chemicals that are present in these discarded objects.

Rivers, lakes, and seas become contaminated as a result of these poisonous elements that may be brought by dumpster rentals or other means, which also emit chemicals into the atmosphere which disrupt earth’s ecosystems. This means that moving away from current production and consumption models that generate excessive electrical waste cannot be pushed off any longer.

One of the solutions to this waste management problem is responsible consumption, which can help extending the usable life of products and decreasing the increase of this waste.

According to the CEO of a Pittsburgh dumpster rental company, “the reuse of electronic items is the only alternative available to us in the face of an ineffective recycling system” in order to limit the amount of electronic waste produced. In 2014, this Pennsylvanian company chose electronic restoration over traditional refurbishment and was recognised as one of the most inventive in Pittsburgh.

How Can We Decrease The Amount Of Technological Waste?


Using an increasing number of devices & replacing them on a more frequent basis. In order to change this habit, it is necessary to engage both the customer who will be less vulnerable to marketing methods that stimulate consumption — and the manufacturing industry, which is increasingly embracing principles such as ecodesign.


Specialists in electronic recycling urge that gadgets that are still in working order be passed down to friends or family members, or that they be sold on the second-hand market. It is also possible to donate them to charitable organisations that specialise in this field.


When a device is no longer functional and there is no chance that it will be used by someone in the immediate vicinity, recycling should be considered. If a consumer wants to recycle an old item, he or she can drop it off at the store where the new one is being purchased or at a company that deals in electronic recycling.

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12 emphasises the need of “ensuring sustainable consumption & production patterns.”

To achieve environmentally acceptable management of discarded electronic devices throughout its life cycle, as well as decreasing the release of toxins into air, water, and soil in order to minimise their detrimental influence on human health and the environment, is essential.

Profits Derived From The Recycling Of Technical Waste

As reported by Environmental Science and Technology magazine in 2019, mining minerals from natural sources is 13 times more expensive than recovering minerals from technological wastes for use in manufacture of new devices, which means that mining minerals from natural sources is the more expensive option.

To obtain minerals such as platinum, copper, and palladium, in addition to digging them up & processing them, large amounts of water & energy must be used in the process, which is extremely inefficient.

This is where the notion of circular economy plays a part, which is based on the utilisation of materials derived from recycled objects and a reduction in reliance on the extraction of virgin resources.

It is not only beneficial to the environment to recycle electrical devices; it also has a number of other advantages.

It is estimated that if these goods were properly recycled, they could generate opportunities worth more than $62.5 billion yearly and create millions of new jobs around the world, according to the International Telecommunication Union.

In light of this, both this organisation & the United Nations have set themselves the goal of increasing worldwide recycling to 30% by 2020, and reaching 50% in countries that have enacted legislation on e-waste by 2025.

Bad practises and ewaste pollution the processing of electronic-waste is a hindrance, and curiously, these are prevalent in those countries which generate the greatest amount of it, such as the United States.

Southeast Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa that are having a negative influence on the environment due to a lack of appropriate infrastructure. The most prevalent of the unlawful ways is what is known as “informal recycling,” which involves the use of harmful items in the open air as well as acid baths.

31 Mar

What Global Harming Has in Store for Our Grandchildren

As this decade 2020 promises to be decisive in terms of climate, we invite you to imagine what the future could be like at the end of the 21st century. A distant future for you. But so present for your children and grandchildren. A present which, in a scenario of generalized awareness takes shape rather rapidly. But which, in a scenario of business as usual”, looks very dark.

Grandpa, I am 15 years old today. My life is just beginning. Yours was completed yesterday. Today, I am offered this incredible chance to write you this postcard. A postcard from the future, of your future, from my present. Of this world that you left me. A chance to maybe be able to change things. Because in 2020, Grandpa, the time when you too were 15, there was still time.

I would first like to tell you that it was the heat that won you over. The one who, without pity for us who provoked it, now breaks in successive waves every summer. The last, it is true, has been particularly extreme. The information has just fallen. A new temperature record has been broken here: 54.9 ° C. Can you just imagine, Grandpa, from the top of your indifferent fortnight?

54.9 °C! This is what your SUV that you will buy in less than ten years have done to the world. Your insatiable hunger for fresh meat too. And, you will soon find out, all these things thrown away barely bought. This latest trendy T-shirt that you’ve only worn three times. Or this smartphone paid for at a hefty price that had to be replaced six months later by its latest development. Evolution? Grandpa, do you really think that this is evolution?

The climate crisis is global. Wait, you haven’t heard everything yet, but yes! you heard it. The scientists had alerted you. The sea level has risen. More than a meter today since your time. And you know what, Grandpa? Millions of people have suffered from it. Children on the other side of the world that you care little about? I imagine it pretty well. But also European children.

Children who look like you. Whose parents may have been sitting next to you on the school benches. Children like me. Florida has become an island. Amsterdam has been wiped off the map. Bordeaux has more than ever its feet in the water. And these children today are desperately knocking on the doors of those who were luckier than them. For how much longer? How much longer will we be able to welcome these climate refugees that nobody wanted to hear about, even in your time, Grandpa? How much longer … will we be luckier than them?

Tomorrow we will move out. We are going to have to leave behind this beautiful house that your father had built. This strong and solid house, all in concrete. This house from another time. The one you loved so much. The last coastal flood was the reason for this attachment. You see, Grandpa, it’s not just polar bears in the arctic circle that are pushed far from home. It’s not just anonymous strangers. Your own family is now suffering the consequences of your disbelief.

And if you only knew … Your daughter, Grandpa, she died two years ago. She was not 40 years old. It is not an age to die like this in a society that is said to be advanced. But she died. Carried away by yet another hurricane, somewhere in the Antilles that she cherished. A hurricane of such power that it devastated the region, leaving behind only sadness and desolation. Your own daughter, Grandpa! You cried all the tears of your body.

Living on this Earth today is hell! Every year, appalling fires are started. In the Arctic, in the Amazon rainforest, or what’s left of it, in Australia. They only worsen an already catastrophic situation. All ecosystems suffer. The animals are massively disappearing. The air becomes unbreathable. Pollution is everywhere and all the dumpster rentals in the world will not be enough to remove all the garbage and waste created by humankind.. The world is coughing. The world is choking. And people are dying earlier than before. You were lucky, Grandpa, to live so old. I will certainly not have as many years as you have.

But it can still be resolved. Drink a glass of water. To eat an apple. It has become a luxury. We have exhausted the resources of our Earth. Of course, solutions have been found. Because the researchers never gave up. But these are just simple bandages placed on open wounds today. What more could they do without the support of the people? Without your membership, Grandpa? They could not prevent water from running out even in the southern regions of our Europe. Droughts of several years have hit the United States.

And the researchers could not prevent the catastrophic rise in food prices that followed either. Your faulty indolence has cost us dearly, Grandpa. It has claimed the lives of those affected by extreme poverty or new diseases. It also, more subtly, cost people’s happiness. Because while you continue to eat hamburgers on this overheated terrace that blows tons of CO2 into the atmosphere, I cry a world that will never return. From the height of my 15 years, I know it. Everyone knows it now: there is no plan B. No planet B.

My only hope today is you, Grandpa! So I beg you, stop doubting science. Stop waiting for others to make decisions. Stop blaming them. You can act, now. Take the things over control. Choose a different future. You just have to believe it. And get started.

21 Aug

America’s Natural Wonders

When traveling to a new country, tourists often are concerned with a multitude of different things. What hotels they should stay at, what areas they should visit, and most importantly, what sites they should see are just a few of the details that every traveler concerns themselves with. Although some tourists focus on what sites they should see in a more urban setting, there are others that are more interesting in seeing the natural sites of the area there visiting.

Fortunately for tourists traveling to the USA, there are all sorts of different natural wonders that are worth visiting within the states. In fact, there are so many that one cannot possibly see them in one trip; because of this, which ones should you visit? Where are they located? Can you visit these places on your own or should you explore them with a tour group?

The Grand Canyon

One of the most breath-takingly beautiful natural sites to visit is undoubtedly the Grand Canyon. This Arizona view is utterly stunning. From either your own car or the park’s free shuttle bus, you are able to observe what the elements have created in one of the most well-known geological sites in the world. Watch the colors change in this mile-deep canyon from dawn until dusk.

For travelers with an adventurous streak, you are able to hike across this natural phenomenon. Guided tours of the Grand Canyon are also available. A few example of many of the great tours offered in the park include the following: a guided bicycle tour, mule trips, and guided hikes.

Old Faithful

Another spot to consider visiting is the awe-inspiring, reliable Old Faithful. Old Faithful is a cone geyser that is known as one of the most reliable natural wonders of the world. This is because the geyser erupts every 91 minutes, without fail. By visiting this spot not only do you have the opportunity to visit Old Faithful yourself, but you can also view anything else that strikes your fancy at Yellowstone National Park (a park which spreads across three states: Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana).

As well as the geyser and the park itself, you will be able to observe wild creatures, such as grizzly bears, in their natural habitat. Tourists are able to experience Old Faithful and the rest of Yellowstone National Park on their own; however, there are tours available as well. For example, there are hiking and backpacking tours, river safaris, Yellowstone safaris, and llama treks available for interested travelers.

Sequoia National Park

Yet another wonderful and stunning natural wonder in the United States is Sequoia National Park in Three Rivers, California. This is an astounding place to visit for one very simple reason: its trees. Although this nature preserve has many trees, it has one that you won’t be forgetting anytime soon. General Sherman is the name of this famous tree and it is the largest tree in world. This tree stands over two hundred feet tall and is definitely something you don’t want to miss while exploring America’s numerous natural wonders.

Aside from these spectacular trees, there are endless amounts of other plant life around the park for you to discover as well as exploring the Sierra Nevada Foothills, Moro Rock, and the Great Western Divide. Aside from the interesting and attractive plant life that is in this park, you also have the chance to see the wild life within this park, such as roaming black bears. This national park is one that you can explore alone or take part in one of its many tours. One example is the Sequoia Sightseeing Tours, the first which takes half a day, the second a full day.

The three previously listed national wonders are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the beautiful and exciting world of the United States’ natural wonders. There are many other exciting, beautiful, and fun places to explore all throughout the country’s fifty states.

11 Apr

The Healthiest Fish You Can Eat

The fact that you’re reading this article means you already know by now that including fish in your diet twice a week is needed for optimal health and weight.

Fish is a lean piece of protein that are packed in healthy vitamins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids. With the variety of fish sold in the market, there are only a couple of them that are exceptionally good for you. Yes, not all kinds of fish deliver the omega-3 fatty acids your diet requires.

Fish is not just a healthy way to add protein to your diet, it is also a protein that can reduce the risk of developing diabetes and other heart-related diseases.

When choosing this protein, you need to make sure they are fresh. One way to look at it is that the eyes shouldn’t be bloodshot, and the gills should be a vibrant reddish pink. One factor to consider is its sustainability. As we have a responsibility to maintain the environment, choosing a sustainable fish will not only be beneficial for the entire community, but to the fish’s habitat as well.

Here are the 4 of the healthiest sustainable fish you can easily find in your market:

Purse Seine (Atlantic Mackerel)

This is a strong-flavored fish packed with heart-healthy omega-3s that works really well with bold seasonings. You can get 20 grams of protein in a fillet of 30 grams – not bad as a lean source of protein. Atlantic Mackerel is also a sustainable kind as they can repopulate easily and can handle frequent amounts of fishing. The gear used to fish them is a regular fish net, this makes the way of catching them efficient and environment friendly.

Freshwater Salmon

Salmon is widely used in many Asian cooking. Known for its use in sushi platters, salmon is typically caught wild. However, to maintain its sustainability, many freshwater farms have raised salmon to cater to the demands, especially in the United States.

To be specific, freshwater coho salmon is a farmed fish that got a Super Green Rating. This means they are deemed fresh, healthy and contain no contaminants at all. There are still other farms today that are still on the “avoid” list – that’s another information worth checking. The only downside of getting freshwater salmon is its susceptibility to parasitic infections. There are times that these fish are exposed to antibiotic treatments which many consumers are put off by.

Wild Caught Salmon (From Alaska)

Alaska’s Salmon fishery is considered to be one of the strictest fisheries around the world. Biologists are stationed at river mouths to ensure that wild fish comes back to reproduce again.

As soon as the number of fish depletes, the fishery closes down until it raises up the reference threshold again. Alaskan salmon contains 1,210mg of omega-3 for every 3 ounces of serving. Wild caught salmon, unlike freshwater salmon, contains less contaminants and are less likely to get parasites.

Wild Caught Sardines

Compared to salmon, tuna or just about any other fish in the market, this inexpensive and tiny fish contains 1,950mg of omega 3 for every 3 ounces of serving, making its was as one of the superfoods that you should have in your kitchen. Rich in vitamin D, sardines are also one of the most sustainable fish as they reproduce quickly.

Eating fish on a regular basis is a healthy habit. Not just that, you may also lose some weight if you replace your meat and junk food with fish, as you will feel full almost as fast but with much less calories intake.

The importance of including healthy fatty acids in your diet is a must. Always remember that not all fish contains the right amount of omega-3 and there are those out there that can do more harm than good for your health. Be mindful of contaminated fish and those that are high in mercury content.

10 May

The Origin Of The Apple

What is the origin of the apple?

There are forests of incredible prehistoric wild apple trees grown in the mountains of Kazakhstan. Apples would have appeared 165 million years. These trees can reach up to 30 meters high and their apples, with nice shapes and colors are edible, some sweet and tasty.

A small number have developed an exceptional resistance to diseases, especially the number one scourge of apple: apple scab. The trees present in Kazakhstan have a set of resistance genes that were lost during the long process of domestication of apples when they journeyed from Asia to Europe.

Are these trees the ancestors of our modern cultivated apple?

It is an academician from Kazakhstan who explored this unparalleled biodiversity. The journey of this amazing vision was bright and incorruptible, identifying, mapping and studying these magnificent trees. In adversity and underground, isolated under Stalin who was hostile to the progress of modern genetics, he dedicated his life to the study and protection of the apples.

This scientific work is of great importance today as it allowed an extensive research on resistance to parasites of the apple at Cornell University in the United States as well as Oxford, England.

Researchers in genetics and horticulture worked on genetic improvement and the creation of new varieties of quality fruit while reducing the use of pesticides. Several apple varieties have been developed, including the Ariane apple, the fruit of 30 years of research.

The apple is the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Paradoxically, its fruit is loaded with symbolism from the beginning, it is the forbidden fruit. Countless varieties of apples are generously produced all year. The apple has been known since ancient times. Our apples are present from wild apple trees from Asia Minor to the Caucasus.

You bet, people even observed the apple tree in the Himalayas up to 3000 meters. Gradually and more recently, the apple trees have been developed into many hybrids. Crosses gave different forms of apples from what we knew. Today there are nearly 6,000 varieties of apples clearly identified. The apple tree is very old, perfectly suited to the South of the Europe, one of his favorite parts. Indeed, climate and soil make its fruits tastier and excellent for dessert or cider.

Towards the end of the Tertiary, beginning of the Quaternary about 1.7 million years ago, appeared the wild apple. Prints of wild apple leaves were found in France. About one million years ago the first primates belonging to the same family as man started to collect wild plants.

Wild apple growing in hedges or bushes provided fruit smaller and more colorful than those of the cultivated varieties. Their presence ensured good pollination of other species. The wild apple can make excellent jellies. Remains of apples have been found cut in prehistoric settlements in lake dwellings of Neolithic and Bronze Age, about 4550-750 BC.

The Celts, who invaded Gaul in the first millennium, much appreciated the apple. This fruit was a symbol in their traditions and a reward in some games, but the Romans and the Germans destroyed the power of the Celtic Druids. Their culture only survived in the kingdoms of Ireland among the invaded countries.

The culture of the apple has mainly spread around the Mediterranean. Apple was best known to Egyptian, Jewish and Greek civilizations. The winning Israelites in the exodus from Egypt, brought it in Palestine in the 19th century BC. The apple tree was among the trees that the pharaoh Ramses II planted in his garden Delta.

Olympus is a steep snow-capped peak which was to inspire fear in the Greeks. No doubt they will represent the abode of the gods as a place very light air, inaccessible and mysterious. This is where the games took place every four years, where athletes competed in tournaments to find the winner in each type of game.

Hesiod, Greek poet of the 8th century BC, teaches field work for the days and seasons of the year. There was already talking of grafting apple. For the Gauls, apple, a word of Celtic origin, was a sacred tree such as oak, probably because it is often charged with mistletoe, the sacred mistletoe revered by the Druids, and they would not play near it.

If the French name of the apple comes from the Latin word meaning fruit (pomum), it is probably because it was in this country, the most common fruit. The Romans practiced the graft. They had rich orchards on their land. Pomona was the goddess of fruits and gardens. So thanks Pomona to bring the good apple to us today.